Imaging of Elbow Fractures and Dislocations in Adults ...

Elbow, fractures and dislocations. Elbow effusion with associated fat-pad elevation in the setting of radial head fracture. The anterior fat pad is elevated, and its undersurface is convex, giving the "spinnaker sail sign." The posterior fat pad is elevated out of the deep olecranon fossa and is visible just above the cortex of the distal humerus.

Sail sign (elbow) | Radiology Reference Article ...

The sail sign on an elbow radiograph, also known as the anterior fat pad sign, describes the elevation of the anterior fat padto create a silhouette similar to a billowing spinnaker sail from a boat. It indicates the presence of an elbow joint effusion.

Elbow Xray Positioning - Lateral Projection - Lateromedial ...

the elbow fat pads are the least compresed It must be realized that in partial or complete extension the olecranon process elevates the posterior elbow fat pad and simulates joint pathology. Image Receptor: 8 x 10 inches single or 24 x 30 cm divided.

MDCT of the Elbow in Pediatric Patients with Posttraumatic ...

A, Lateral radiograph of elbow shows fat pad sign with elevation of anterior and posterior fat pads (arrows). No fracture was identified on frontal or lateral radiographs of elbow. B and C, Axial (B) and coronal (C) reformatted MDCT images show nondisplaced fracture (arrow) of …

The posterior fat pad sign in association with occult ...

Background: An elevated posterior fat pad visible on a lateral radiograph of a child's elbow following trauma is generally considered to be suggestive of an intracapsular fracture about the elbow. However, in previous studies, the prevalence of fracture in elbows with an elevated posterior fat pad and no other radiographic evidence of fracture has ranged from only 6 …

Normal and Variant Anatomy of the Elbow on Magnetic ...

Anterior and posterior fat pads of the elbow. Axial T1-weighted magnetic resonance images of the elbow showing ( A ) anterior ( arrows ) and ( B ) posterior ( arrow ) fat pads. The ulnar collateral ligament, also known as the medial collateral ligament, consists of three ligamentous bundles, the anterior, posterior, and transverse bundles.

ELBOW X-RAY : LATERAL | LATEROMEDIAL - RadTechOnDuty

Thursday, December 29, 2011. LATERAL - LATEROMEDIAL PROJECTION: ELBOW. Pathology Demonstrates: Fracture and dislocation of elbow and some bony pathologic processes, such as osteomyelitis and arthritis, are shown. Elevated or displaced fat pads of the elbow joint may be visualized. Technical Factor: IR 18 x 24 cm (8 x 10 inches), crosswise.

What is a fat pad in the elbow?

Normally the anterior fat pad is only seen as a straight line paralleling the distal humerus. Any visualization of the posterior fat pad is a sign of an elbow joint effusion. An elbow joint effusion in the setting of trauma is typically a sign of an occult fracture.

The Predictive Value of a Normal Radiographic Anterior Fat ...

The purposes of this study were to describe the characteristics of a normal anterior fat pad (AFP) and to determine the association between a normal AFP and the absence of fracture. Methods: A prospective cohort of children aged 1 to18 years with …

Elbow Synovial Fold Syndrome : American Journal of ...

A synovial fold extending from the posterior fat pad in the elbow is a frequent finding on MR imaging. In a subgroup of patients, plicae, when thickened, may present clinically as a locking elbow. ... Each elbow was placed in a flexible coil in full extension and supination. Coronal, axial, and sagittal T1-weighted spin-echo (TR/TE, 500/22) fat ...

Learning Radiology - Posterior Fat Pad Sign

The anterior fat pad (black arrow) which is usually visible normally is elevated upward by the joint effusion. Positive Posterior Fat Pad. Another lateral radiograph of the elbow shows a crescentric lucency projecting posterior to the distal humerus (white arrow) representing fat which has been displaced by an elbow joint effusion.

Elbow (lateral view) | Radiology Reference Article ...

The visualization of the posterior fat pad sign on a true lateral projection indicates an elbow joint effusion and is suggestive of an occult fracture if no obvious fracture is seen. The sail sign or the triangular appearance of the elevated anterior fat pad should also raise suspicions of …

Fat Pad Signs in Elbow Trauma - Idaho State University

These fat pads are slightly more radiolucent than the adjacent muscle tissues, making them visible on a properly positioned 90° later- al radiograph of the elbow. They appear as a single radiolucent density. (See Fig. 1-A1.) The anterior fat pad can be elevat- …

The predictive value of a normal radiographic anterior fat ...

Objective: The purposes of this study were to describe the characteristics of a normal anterior fat pad (AFP) and to determine the association between a normal AFP and the absence of fracture. Methods: A prospective cohort of children aged 1 to 18 years with elbow trauma underwent radiographic examination. All patients received standard orthopedic management and follow …

X-ray Vision - Shoulders and Elbows — Taming the SRU

Radial head and neck fractures are the most common elbow fractures encountered in adults and can be classified by the Mason-Johnston system (14). These fractures can be very subtle and are sometimes missed; on occasion, a displaced anterior fat pad may be the only radiographic sign of a radial head/neck fracture.

Use of a Pedicled Adipose Flap as a Sling for Anterior ...

The subcutaneous layer of the medial elbow has sufficient adipose tissue to create a roughly 12 × 4-cm flap with an axial vascular pedicle to encircle the nerve and provide restraint against posterior subluxation. After the flap is raised, there is adequate remaining fat to supply the skin vitality and promote primary healing.

Synovial Haemangioma of the Elbow

A plain radiograph of the left elbow showed a mass or effusion causing signs of a posterior fat pad and anterior sail [Figure 1]. No abnormal calcification was seen. In view of the persistent swelling, a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination was performed.

CE4RT - Radiographic Positioning of the Elbow for X-ray ...

Soft tissue of the fat pads should be visible. On an elbow X-ray, a fat pad sign suggests an occult fracture. It is caused by displacement of the fat pad around the elbow joint. Both anterior and posterior fat pad signs exist, and both can be found on the same X-ray. Position of patient The patient should be Seated sideways at the end of the ...

The Elbow: Radiographic Imaging Pearls and Pitfalls

anterior and posterior fat pads are located deep to the ... present within the capsular margins of the elbow joint. The posterior fat pad normally lies deep within the olec-ranon fossa. Any process that distends the joint (hema- ... with depressed anterior component. (B) Axial T2-weighted MR image with fat-saturation well shows commi-

Elbow—Distal Humerus | Thoracic Key

A small anterior fat pad is a normal finding on many pediatric elbow x-rays, while a posterior fat pad sign often indicates an occult fracture about the elbow . Figure 8-7 An ultrasound can be used to evaluate displacement of a lateral condyle fracture in young children.

Pediatric Sports Injuries - ACEP // Home Page

axial compression or delayed injury only apparent retrospectively. Salter Harris Injuries ... Normal Elbow Radiology Anterior Humeral Line- thru middle 1/3 capitellum ... Posterior or elevated anterior fat pad abnormal. 8 yo M s/p FOOSH: Radial head dislocation and ulnar fracture.

Musculoskeletal Ultrasound Technical Guidelines II

rus filled with the anterior fat pad. In nor-mal states, a small amount of fluid may be seen between the fat pad and the humerus. On transverse scans, the ante-rior distal humeral epiphysis appears as a wavy hyperechoic line covered by a thin layer of hypoechoic articular cartilage: its lateral third corresponds to the humeral

Elbow and Forearm | Radiology Key

The anterior fat pad is located in the coronoid fossa while the posterior fat pad is located in the olecranon fossa. These fat pads must be evaluated on true lateral, flexed views of the elbow, for with any degree of rotation or extension, their usefulness diminishes or …

Diagnostic Imaging of the Elbow | Musculoskeletal Key

Careful evaluation of the fat pads and supinator fat stripe is essential. These structures are best observed on the lateral (see Fig. 6-2) and radial head (see Fig. 6-6) views.The anterior and posterior fat pads are intracapsular but extrasynovial. 5, 8, 10, 26, 28 The anterior fat pad is normally visible on the lateral view. The posterior fat pad is obscured owing to its …